Isaac Newton

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Isaac Newton mwaka 1689.
Kitabu chake Principia Mathematica, 1686.

Isaac Newton (25 Desemba 164220 Machi 1727) alikuwa mwanahisabati, mwanafizikia na mwanateolojia kutoka nchi ya Uingereza.

Anakumbukwa duniani kote kutokana na michango yake mbalimbali katika sayansi.

Ndiye aliyegundua tawi la kalkulasi (sambamba na Leibniz), nadharia ya mwendo na ya uvutano (graviti).

Mchango mwingine wa Isaac Newton upo katika nadharia ya mwanga, akitumia prisma kuonyesha jinsi rangi zinavyotokea.

Alichangia pia astronomia kwa kuboresha darubini ya kuakisia iliyoleta matokeo mazuri. Alitambua ya kwamba kanuni za mvutano zinatawala pia mwendo wa sayari. Alitunga ramani ya nyota kufuatana na tafiti za Flamsteed.

Newton alipata shahada yake ya kwanza mwaka 1665 na ile ya uzamili mwaka 1668.

Alizaliwa katika familia ya Kianglikana akatumia muda mwingi kufanya utafiti wa Biblia na theolojia. Alilenga kupatanisha elimu ya sayansi na imani yake. Aliandika "Graviti inaeleza miendo ya sayari lakini haiwezi kueleza ni nani aliyeanzisha miendo yao. Mungu anatawala mambo yote na yaliyopo na yanayoweza kuwepo".

Tarehe 10 Desemba 1682 alimuandikia Richard Bentley: «Siamini ulimwengu unaweza kuelezwa na sababu za maumbile tu, bali nalazimika kuuona kama tunda la hekima na ubunifu vya mmoja mwenye akili». Hata hivyo, yeye binafsi hakukubali mafundisho juu ya Utatu wa Mungu.

Maandishi yake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Ball, W.W. Rouse (1908). A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. New York: Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-20630-1. 
  • Christianson, Gale (1984). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-905190-0.  This well documented work provides, in particular, valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics
  • Craig, John (1958). "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". Nature 182 (4629): 149–52. doi:10.1038/182149a0
     .
  • Craig, John (1963). "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–45. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1963.0017
     .

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Andrade, E.N.De C. (1950). Isaac Newton. New York: Chanticleer Press. ISBN 978-0-8414-3014-3. 
  • Bardi, Jason Socrates. The Calculus Wars: Newton, Leibniz, and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Bechler, Zev (1991). Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. Springer. ISBN 978-0-7923-1054-9. 
  • Bechler, Zev (2013). Contemporary Newtonian Research (Studies in the History of Modern Science)(Volume 9). Springer. ISBN 978-9400977174. 
  • Berlinski, David. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. (2000); Kigezo:Isbn
  • Buchwald, Jed Z. and Cohen, I. Bernard (eds.) Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy, MIT Press (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Casini, P (1988). "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1988.0006
     . ISSN 0035-9149
      .
  • Christianson, Gale E. (1996). Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530070-3.  See this site for excerpt and text search.
  • Christianson, Gale (1984). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-905190-0. 
  • Cohen, I. Bernard and Smith, George E., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. (2002). 500 pp. focuses on philosophical issues only; excerpt and text search; complete edition online
  • Cohen, I.B. (1980). The Newtonian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-22964-7. 
  • Craig, John (1946). Newton at the Mint. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Dampier, William C. (1959). Readings in the Literature of Science. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-486-42805-5. 
  • de Villamil, Richard (1931). Newton, the Man. London, UK: G.D. Knox.  – Preface by Albert Einstein. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York (1972)
  • Dobbs, B.J.T. (1975). The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". Cambridge University Press. 
  • Eamon Duffy, "Far from the Tree" (review of Rob Iliffe, Priest of Nature: the Religious Worlds of Isaac Newton, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017, ISBN 9780199995356Script error: No such module "check isxn".), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 4 (8 March 2018), pp. 28–29.
  • Gjertsen, Derek (1986). The Newton Handbook. London, UK: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7102-0279-6. 
  • Gleick, James (2003). Isaac Newton. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-42233-1. 
  • Halley, E. (1687). "Review of Newton's Principia". Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–97.
  • Hawking, Stephen, ed. On the Shoulders of Giants. Kigezo:Isbn Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Einstein
  • Herivel, J. W. (1965). The Background to Newton's Principia. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  • Iliffe, Rob (2017). Priest of Nature: the religious worlds of Isaac Newton. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199995356. 
  • Keynes, John Maynard (1963). Essays in Biography. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-00189-1.  Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers.
  • Koyré, A (1965). Newtonian Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  • Newton, Isaac. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy, edited by I. Bernard Cohen. Harvard University Press, 1958, 1978; Kigezo:Isbn.
  • Newton, Isaac (1642–1727). The Principia: a new Translation, Guide by I. Bernard Cohen; Kigezo:Isbn, University of California (1999)
  • Pemberton, H. (1728). "A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy". The Physics Teacher 4 (1): 8–9. doi:10.1119/1.2350900
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  • Shamos, Morris H. (1959). Great Experiments in Physics. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-486-25346-6. 
  • Shapley, Harlow, S. Rapport, and H. Wright. A Treasury of Science; "Newtonia" pp. 147–9; "Discoveries" pp. 150–4. Harper & Bros., New York, (1946).
  • Simmons, J (1996). The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. Sydney: The Book Company. 
  • Stukeley, W. (1936). Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. Taylor and Francis.  (edited by A.H. White; originally published in 1752)
  • Trabue, J. “Ann and Arthur Storer of Calvert County, Maryland, Friends of Sir Isaac Newton,” The American Genealogist 79 (2004): 13–27.
  • Westfall, R.S. (1971). Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. London, UK: Macdonald. ISBN 978-0-444-19611-8. 

Dini

  • Dobbs, Betty Jo Tetter. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. (1991), links the alchemy to Arianism
  • Force, James E., and Richard H. Popkin, eds. Newton and Religion: Context, Nature, and Influence. (1999), pp. xvii, 325; 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts
  • Pfizenmaier, Thomas C. (January 1997). "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. doi:10.1353/jhi.1997.0001
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  • Ramati, Ayval. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–38. in JSTOR, argues that his calculus had a theological basis
  • Snobelen, Stephen "'God of Gods, and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia", Osiris 2nd series, Vol. 16, (2001), pp. 169–208 in JSTOR
  • Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751
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  • Wiles, Maurice. Archetypal Heresy. Arianism through the Centuries. (1996) 214 pages, with chapter 4 on eighteenth century England; pp. 77–93 on Newton, excerpt and text search.

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