Isaac Newton

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Isaac Newton mwaka 1689.
Kitabu chake Principia Mathematica, 1686.

Isaac Newton (25 Desemba 164220 Machi 1727) alikuwa mwanahisabati, mwanafizikia na mwanateolojia kutoka nchi ya Uingereza.

Anakumbukwa duniani kote kutokana na michango yake mbalimbali katika sayansi.

Ndiye aliyegundua tawi la kalkulasi (sambamba na Leibniz), sheria za mwendo na ya uvutano (graviti).

Mchango mwingine wa Isaac Newton upo katika nadharia ya mwanga, akitumia prisma kuonyesha jinsi rangi zinazounda mwanga (kama zinavyoonekana kwenye upinde wa mvua) zinavyotokea.

Alichangia pia astronomia kwa kuboresha darubini ya kuakisia (darubini akisi) iliyoleta matokeo mazuri. Alitambua ya kwamba kanuni za mvutano zinatawala pia mwendo wa sayari. Alitunga ramani ya nyota kufuatana na tafiti za Flamsteed.

Elimu na imani

Newton alipata shahada yake ya kwanza mwaka 1665 na ile ya uzamili mwaka 1668.

Kwa kuwa alizaliwa katika familia ya Kianglikana, alitumia muda mwingi kufanya utafiti wa Biblia na theolojia pia. Alilenga kupatanisha elimu ya sayansi na imani yake. Aliandika "Graviti inaeleza miendo ya sayari lakini haiwezi kueleza ni nani aliyeanzisha miendo yao. Mungu anatawala mambo yote na yaliyopo na yanayoweza kuwepo".

Tarehe 10 Desemba 1682 alimuandikia Richard Bentley: «Siamini ulimwengu unaweza kuelezwa na sababu za maumbile tu, bali nalazimika kuuona kama tunda la hekima na ubunifu vya mmoja mwenye akili». Hata hivyo, yeye binafsi hakukubali mafundisho juu ya Utatu wa Mungu.

Maandishi yake

Marejeo

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  • Craig, John (1963). "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–45. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1963.0017
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Marejeo mengine

  • Andrade, E.N.De C. (1950). Isaac Newton. New York: Chanticleer Press. ISBN 978-0-8414-3014-3. 
  • Bardi, Jason Socrates. The Calculus Wars: Newton, Leibniz, and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Bechler, Zev (1991). Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. Springer. ISBN 978-0-7923-1054-9. 
  • Bechler, Zev (2013). Contemporary Newtonian Research (Studies in the History of Modern Science)(Volume 9). Springer. ISBN 978-9400977174. 
  • Berlinski, David. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. (2000); Kigezo:Isbn
  • Buchwald, Jed Z. and Cohen, I. Bernard (eds.) Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy, MIT Press (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Casini, P (1988). "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1988.0006
     . ISSN 0035-9149
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Dini

  • Dobbs, Betty Jo Tetter. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. (1991), links the alchemy to Arianism
  • Force, James E., and Richard H. Popkin, eds. Newton and Religion: Context, Nature, and Influence. (1999), pp. xvii, 325; 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts
  • Pfizenmaier, Thomas C. (January 1997). "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. doi:10.1353/jhi.1997.0001
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  • Ramati, Ayval. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–38. in JSTOR, argues that his calculus had a theological basis
  • Snobelen, Stephen "'God of Gods, and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia", Osiris 2nd series, Vol. 16, (2001), pp. 169–208 in JSTOR
  • Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751
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  • Wiles, Maurice. Archetypal Heresy. Arianism through the Centuries. (1996) 214 pages, with chapter 4 on eighteenth century England; pp. 77–93 on Newton, excerpt and text search.

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