Irritable bowel syndrome

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Irritable bowel syndrome
Mwainisho na taarifa za nje
SpecialtyGastroenterology
SymptomsDiarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain[1]
Usual onsetBefore 45 years old[1]
DurationLong term[2]
CausesUnknown[2]
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms, exclusion of other diseases[3]
Differential diagnosisCeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid malabsorption, colon cancer[3][4]
TreatmentSymptomatic (diet, medication, probiotics, counseling)[5]
MedicationLoperamide, polyethylene glycol, antidepressants, antispasmodics, peppermint[3][6]
PrognosisNormal life expectancy[7]
Frequency10–15% (developed world)[1][8] and 1–45% (globally)[9][10]

Ugonjwa wa utumbo wenye hasira ( IBS ) ni kundi la dalili-ikiwa ni pamoja na maumivu ya tumbo na mabadiliko katika muundo wa kinyesi bila ushahidi wowote wa uharibifu wa msingi. [1] Dalili hizi hutokea kwa muda mrefu, kama miaka. [2] Imeainishwa katika aina nne kuu kutegemea kama kuhara ni jambo la kawaida, kuvimbiwa ni jambo la kawaida, zote mbili ni za kawaida, au hazitokei mara nyingi sana (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, au IBS-U mtawalia). [1] IBS huathiri vibaya ubora wa maisha na inaweza kusababisha kukosa shule au kazi. [11] Matatizo kama vile wasiwasi, unyogovu mkubwa, na ugonjwa wa uchovu sugu ni kawaida kati ya watu wenye IBS. [1] [12]

Sababu haziko wazi. [2] Nadharia ni pamoja na mseto wa matatizo ya mhimili wa matumbo-ubongo, matatizo ya kuhama kwa utumbo, hisia za maumivu, maambukizi ikiwa ni pamoja na ukuaji wa bakteria kwenye utumbo mdogo, wapitishaji nyuro, sababu za kijeni na usikivu wa chakula . [2] Kuanza kunaweza kuchochewa na maambukizi ya matumbo, [13] au tukio la mfadhaiko la maisha. [14] IBS ni ugonjwa wa utumbo unaofanya kazi . [1] Utambuzi hutegemea dalili kwa kukosekana kwa vipengele vya kutisha na mara hali nyingine zinazowezekana zimeondolewa. [3] Vipengele vya kusikitisha ni pamoja na kuanza kwa umri zaidi ya miaka 50, kupungua uzito, damu kwenye kinyesi, au historia ya familia ya ugonjwa wa matumbo unaowaka . [3] Hali zingine ambazo zinaweza kujitokeza vile vile ni pamoja na ugonjwa wa celiac, colitis ya microscopic, ugonjwa wa matumbo ya kuvimba, unyonyaji wa asidi ya bile na saratani ya koloni . [3]

Hakuna tiba; kwa juhudi za kuboresha dalili. [5] Hii inaweza kujumuisha mabadiliko ya lishe, mazoezi, dawa, probiotics, na ushauri . [5] [6] Hatua za lishe ni pamoja na kuongeza nyuzinyuzi mumunyifu, mlo usio na gluteni (ni protini kiasili inayopatikana katika baadhi ya nafaka ikiwa ni pamoja na ngano, shayiri, ma rai. Inayofanya kazi kama kifunga, kushikilia chakula pamoja na kuongeza "kunyoosha"), au mlo wa muda mfupi usio na oligosaccharides (wanga ambayo ina monosaccharides mbili au zaidi ya mbili) inayoweza kuchachuka, disaccharides (dutu yoyote ambayo inaundwa na molekuli mbili za sukari rahisi), monosaccharides, na polyols. [3] [15] [16] Dawa ya loperamide inaweza kutumika kusaidia kuhara ilhali vilainishi kama vile polyethilini glikoli vinaweza kusaidia kwa kuvimbiwa. [3] [6] Dawamfadhaiko, antispasmodics, na mafuta ya peremende zinaweza kuboresha dalili za jumla na kupunguza maumivu. [3] [6] [17] Elimu ya mgonjwa na uhusiano mzuri kati ya daktari na mgonjwa ni sehemu muhimu ya utunzaji. [3] [18]

Takriban asilimia 10-15 ya watu katika ulimwengu ulioendelea wanaaminika kuathiriwa na IBS. [1] [8] Inakadiriwa kuwa asilimia 1-45 ya watu ulimwenguni kote wameathiriwa na IBS. [9] [10] Imewadhiri sana watu katika eneo la Amerika ya Kusini na Asia ya Kusini-mashariki . [3] Ni mara mbili ya kawaida kwa wanawake kuliko wanaume na kwa kawaida hutokea kabla ya umri wa miaka 45. [1] Hali inaonekana kuwa chini ya kawaida na umri. [3] IBS haiathiri umri wa kuishi au kusababisha magonjwa mengine makubwa. [7] Maelezo ya kwanza ya hali hiyo yalikuwa mwaka wa 1820 huku istilahi ya sasa ya ugonjwa wa utumbo mpana ilianza kutumika mwaka wa 1944. [19]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome". NIDDKD. Februari 23, 2015. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo Aprili 2, 2016. Iliwekwa mnamo Machi 29, 2016. {{cite web}}: More than one of |accessdate= na |access-date= specified (help); More than one of |archivedate= na |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= na |archive-url= specified (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Symptoms and Causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome". NIDDK. Februari 23, 2015. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo Aprili 5, 2016. Iliwekwa mnamo Machi 29, 2016. {{cite web}}: More than one of |accessdate= na |access-date= specified (help); More than one of |archivedate= na |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= na |archive-url= specified (help)
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 Chey WD, Kurlander J, Eswaran S (Machi 2015). "Irritable bowel syndrome: a clinical review". JAMA. 313 (9): 949–58. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.0954. PMID 25734736. S2CID 205062386.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  4. Levy J, Bernstein L, Silber N (Desemba 2014). "Celiac disease: an immune dysregulation syndrome". Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care. 44 (11): 324–7. doi:10.1016/j.cppeds.2014.10.002. PMID 25499458.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome". NIDDK. Februari 23, 2015. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo Aprili 6, 2016. Iliwekwa mnamo Machi 29, 2016. {{cite web}}: More than one of |accessdate= na |access-date= specified (help); More than one of |archivedate= na |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= na |archive-url= specified (help)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Vasant, DH; Paine, PA; Black, CJ; Houghton, LA; Everitt, HA; Corsetti, M; Agrawal, A; Aziz, I; Farmer, AD; Eugenicos, MP; Moss-Morris, R; Yiannakou, Y; Ford, AC (Julai 2021). "British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines on the management of irritable bowel syndrome". Gut. 70 (7): 1214–1240. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324598. PMID 33903147.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  7. 7.0 7.1 Quigley, Eamonn M.M. (2013). "Treatment level 1". Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Diagnosis and Clinical Management (toleo la First). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781118444740. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo Septemba 8, 2017.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Maxion-Bergemann S, Thielecke F, Abel F, Bergemann R (2006). "Costs of irritable bowel syndrome in the UK and US". PharmacoEconomics. 24 (1): 21–37. doi:10.2165/00019053-200624010-00002. PMID 16445300. S2CID 45376327.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "New insights into irritable bowel syndrome: from pathophysiology to treatment". Ann Gastroenterol. 32 (6): 554–564. 2019. doi:10.20524/aog.2019.0428. PMC 6826071. PMID 31700231. {{cite journal}}: Cite uses deprecated parameter |authors= (help)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Lovell, RM; Ford, AC (Julai 2012). "Global prevalence of and risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis". Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 10 (7): 712-721.e4. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2012.02.029. PMID 22426087.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  11. Hulisz D (2004). "The burden of illness of irritable bowel syndrome: current challenges and hope for the future". Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy. 10 (4): 299–309. doi:10.18553/jmcp.2004.10.4.299. PMID 15298528.
  12. Whitehead WE, Palsson O, Jones KR (Aprili 2002). "Systematic review of the comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome with other disorders: what are the causes and implications?". Gastroenterology. 122 (4): 1140–56. doi:10.1053/gast.2002.32392. PMID 11910364.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  13. Spiller R, Garsed K (Mei 2009). "Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome". Gastroenterology. 136 (6): 1979–88. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2009.02.074. PMID 19457422.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  14. Chang L (Machi 2011). "The role of stress on physiologic responses and clinical symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome". Gastroenterology. 140 (3): 761–5. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.01.032. PMC 3039211. PMID 21256129.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  15. Moayyedi P, Quigley EM, Lacy BE, Lembo AJ, Saito YA, Schiller LR, Soffer EE, Spiegel BM, Ford AC (Septemba 2014). "The effect of fiber supplementation on irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 109 (9): 1367–74. doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.195. PMID 25070054.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  16. Rao SS, Yu S, Fedewa A (Juni 2015). "Systematic review: dietary fibre and FODMAP-restricted diet in the management of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 41 (12): 1256–70. doi:10.1111/apt.13167. PMID 25903636.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  17. Ton, Joey (20 Januari 2020). "#251 But I am not Depressed: Antidepressants for Irritable Bowel Syndrome". CFPCLearn. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo Januari 29, 2023. Iliwekwa mnamo 15 Juni 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
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  19. Hatch, Maureen C. (2000). Women and Health. San Diego, Calif: Academic Press. uk. 1098. ISBN 9780122881459. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo Septemba 8, 2017.