Eklampsia

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Eklampsia
Mwainisho na taarifa za nje
ICD-10 O15.
ICD-9 642.6
DiseasesDB 4068
MedlinePlus 000899
eMedicine med/1905 emerg/796
MeSH D004461

Eklampsia ni mwanzo wa mitukutiko (misukosuko) katika mwanamke aliye na prekilampsia.[1] Prekilampsia ni ugonjwa wa ujauzito ambapo kuna shinikizo la juu la damu na uwepo wa viwango vikubwa vya protini kwenye mkojo au utendakazi mwingine duni wa viungo.[2][3] Ugonjwa huu unaweza kuanza kabla, wakati wa, au baada ya kujifungua.Mitukutiko ni ya aina ya kitoni na kiklonasi na kwa kawaida hudumu kwa takriban dakika moja. Baada ya mtukutiko, kwa kawaida kipindi cha kuchanganyikiwa au kupoteza ufahamu hufuatia . Matatizo hujumuisha: numonia ya kuvimba mapafu, kuvuja damu kwenye ubongo, kushindwa kwa figo na mshtuko wa moyo. Prekilampsia na eklampsia ni sehemu ya kikundi kikubwa zaidi cha hali zinazojulikana kama magonjwa ya shinikizo la juu la damu katika ujauzito.[1]

Kinga na matibabu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mapendekezo ya kinga ni pamoja na: aspirin kwa watu walio katika hatari kubwa, nyongeza ya kalisi katika maeneo yenye upungufu wa kalisi, na matibabu dhidi ya hipatensheni ya awali kwa dawa.[4][5] Mazoezi ya mwili wakati wa ujauzito pia yanaweza kusaidia.[1] Kutumia Salfeti ya magnesiamu ya kudungwa ndani ya mishipa au ndani ya misuli huwasaidia wanawake walio na eklampsia na huwa salama kwa kijumla.[6][7] Hali hii hutokea katika yaliyostawi na mataifa yanayostawi.[6] Huenda mgonjwa akahitaji kusaidiwa kupumua. Mbinu zingine za matibabu zinaweza kujumuisha dawa kama vile hydralazine na kuzaa kwa dharura kupitia ukeni au kuzaa kwa njia ya upasuaji.[1]

Epidemiolojia, prognosisi na historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Prekilampsia hukadiriwa kuathiri takriban asilimia 5 ya wanawake wanaozaa nayo eklampsia huwaathiri takriban asilimia 1.4 ya wanawake wanaozaa.[8] Katika mataifa yalistawi, viwango vya ugonjwa huu ni takriban mwanamke 1 katika wanawake 2000 wanaozaa, kwa sababu ya uboreshaji wa viwango vya afya.[1] Magonjwa ya shinikizo la juu la damu katika ujauzito ni mojawapo ya visababishi vikuu vya vifo wakati wa ujauzito.[9] Magonjwa haya yalisababisha vifo 29,000 mwaka wa 2013 – vilivyopungua kutoka vifo 37,000 mwaka wa 1990.[10] Takriban asilimia moja ya wanawake walio na eklampsia hufa.[1] Neno eklampsia linatokana na neno la Kigiriki linalomaanisha radi. Maelezo ya kwanza yanayofahamika yalitolewa na Hippocrates katika karne ya 5 BCE.[11]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 (2014) "40", Williams obstetrics, 24th, McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 9780071798938. 
  2. Lambert, G; Brichant, JF; Hartstein, G; Bonhomme, V; Dewandre, PY (2014). "Preeclampsia: an update.". Actaanaesthesiologica Belgica 65 (4): 137–49. PMID 25622379 .
  3. "Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy.". ObstetGynecol. 122 (5): 1122–31. Nov 2013. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000437382.03963.88 . PMID 24150027 . http://www.tsop.org.tw/db/CFile/File/8-1.pdf.
  4. (2011) WHO recommendations for prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.. ISBN 978-92-4-154833-5. 
  5. Henderson, JT; Whitlock, EP; O'Connor, E; Senger, CA; Thompson, JH; Rowland, MG (May 20, 2014). "Low-dose aspirin for prevention of morbidity and mortality from preeclampsia: a systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.". Annals of internal medicine 160 (10): 695–703. doi:10.7326/M13-2844 . PMID 24711050 .
  6. 6.0 6.1 Smith, JM; Lowe, RF; Fullerton, J; Currie, SM; Harris, L; Felker-Kantor, E (5 February 2013). "An integrative review of the side effects related to the use of magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia management.". BMC pregnancy and childbirth 13: 34. PMID 23383864 .
  7. McDonald, SD; Lutsiv, O; Dzaja, N; Duley, L (August 2012). "A systematic review of maternal and infant outcomes following magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in real-world use.". International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 118 (2): 90-6. PMID 22703834 .
  8. Abalos, E; Cuesta, C; Grosso, AL; Chou, D; Say, L (September 2013). "Global and regional estimates of preeclampsia and eclampsia: a systematic review.". European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 170 (1): 1-7. PMID 23746796 .
  9. Arulkumaran, N.; Lightstone, L. (December 2013). "Severe pre-eclampsia and hypertensive crises". Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics &Gynaecology 27 (6): 877–884. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.07.003 .
  10. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2 . PMID 25530442 .
  11. (2006) Advanced Therapy in Hypertension and Vascular Disease. PMPH-USA, 407–408. ISBN 9781550093186.