Aleksanda wa Hales

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Summa universae theologiae

Aleksanda wa Hales, O.F.M., (1185 hivi - 21 Agosti 1245) aliyeitwa Doctor Irrefragibilis, yaani Mwalimu asiyepingika (na Papa Aleksanda IV kati hati De Fontibus Paradisi) na Theologorum Monarcha (kwa Kilatini Mfalme wa Wanateolojia)[1] alikuwa mwanateolojia na mwanafalsafa maarufu katika kustawisha Teolojia ya shule na Shule ya Kifransisko.

Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Aleksanda alizaliwa katika familia tajiri kidogo huko Hales, Shropshire (leo Halesowen, West Midlands), Uingereza, kati ya mwaka 1180 na 1186.

Alisomea chuo kikuu cha Paris akapata digrii ya mwalimu kidogo kabla ya mwaka 1210.[2]

Alianza kufundisha teolojia mwaka 1212 au 1213, akashika uongozi mwaka 1220 au 1221.

Ndiye aliyekifanya kitabu cha Kauli cha Petro Lombardo kuwa cha kiada katika masomo ya teolojia.

Ugomvi ulipotokea chuoni mwaka 1229, Aleksanda akawa mjumbe mmojawapo kwenda Roma kujadili nafasi ya Aristotle katika mtaala.

Baada ya kurudi Uingereza alipopewa vyeo mbalimbali, alirudi kufundisha Paris (1232-1233, halafu akateuliwa katika tume nyingine kwa ajili ya amani kati ya nchi yake asili na Ufaransa.

Mwaka 1236 au 1237, akiwa na umri wa miaka 50 hivi, Aleksanda alishangaza wote kwa kujiunga na Ndugu Wadogo, akawa hivyo Mfransisko wa kwanza kuwa mwalimu wa chuo kikuu. Misimamo yake ikawa misingi ya shule ya Kifransisko katika teolojia.

Aliendelea kufundisha na kuwakilisha chuo kikuu hicho hata katika Mtaguso wa kwanza wa Lyon (1245.

Aliporudi Paris, aliugua akafariki baada ya kumuachia nafasi yake Mfansisko mwingine, Yohane wa La Rochelle.[3]

Kati ya wanafunzi wake wengi, anang'aa Bonaventura wa Bagnoregio; ingawa hakuna hakika kama aliwahi kufundishwa naye, alimfanya "baba na mwalimu" wake, akikusudia "kufuata nyayo zake".[4][5]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Brown and Flores, p.10
  2. Cullen,p.105
  3. Principe p.14
  4. Brown and Flores, p.10
  5. Cullen,p.105

Maandishi yake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Alexander of Hales. Glossa in quatuor libros sententiarum Petri Lombardi. Edited by the Quaracchi Fathers. Bibliotheca Franciscana scholastica medii aevi, t. 12-15. Rome: Collegii S. Bonaventurae, 1951-1957.
  • Alexander of Hales. Quaestiones disputatae antequam esset frater. Edited by the Quarracchi Fathers. Bibliotheca Franciscana scholastica medii aevi, t. 19-21. Quaracchi: Collegii S. Bonaventurae,1960.
  • Alexander of Hales (Attributed). Summa universis theologiae, (Summa fratris Alexandri), edited by Bernardini Klumper and the Quarracchi Fathers, 4 vols. Rome: Collegii S. Bonaventurae, 1924-1948.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Backus, Irena. The Reception of the Church of Fathers in the West: From the Carolingians to the Maurists. Leiden: Brill, 1997, 301-303.
  • Beiting, Christopher. "The Idea of Limbo in Alexander of Hales and Bonaventure” in Franciscan Studies 57 (1999), 4-8.
  • Boehner, Philotheus. The History of the Franciscan School, I. Alexander of Hales; II. John of Rupella – Saint Bonaventure; III. Duns Scotus; Pt. IV. William Ockham, St. Bonaventure, N.Y. : St. Bonaventure University, 1943-1946.
  • Brady, Ignatius. C. “Sacred Scripture in the early franciscan school', in La Sacra Scrittura e i francescani. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. Rome, 1973, 65-82.
  • Coolman, Boyd Taylor. “Alexander of Hales,” in The Spiritual Senses: Perceiving God in Western Christianity, edited by Paul L. Gavrilyuk and Sarah Coakley. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011, 121-139.
  • Cullen, Christopher M. “Alexander of Hales,” in Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages, edited by Jorge J.E. Gracia and Timothy B. Noone. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006, 104-109.
  • Colish, Marcia L. Studies in Scolasticism Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006, 132-133.
  • Fornaro, Italo. La teologia dell'immagine nella Glossa di Alessandro di Hales Vicenza, 1985.
  • Osborne, Kenan B. “Alexander of Hales,” in The History of Franciscan Theology edited by idem. St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 1994.
  • Peter Lombard. Sententiarum libri quattuor. Edited by the Quaracchi Fathers. Spicilegium Bonaventurianum 4, 5. Grottaferrata: Collegium S. Bonaventurae, 1971-1981. English translation by Giulio Silano, The Sentences. 4 vols. Toronto: PIMS, 2007-2010.
  • Principe, Walter H. Alexander of Hales’ Theology of the Hypostatic Union. Vol. 2 of The Theology of the Hypostatic Union in the Early Thirteenth Century Toronto: PIMS, 1967.
  • Russell, Frederick H. “Just War” in The Cambridge History of Medieval Philosophy, edited by Robert Pasnau and Christina Van Dyke. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010, 602-603.
  • Wood, Rega. “Distinct Ideas and Perfect Solicitude: Alexander of Hales, Richard Rufus, and Odo Rigaldus.” Franciscan Studies 53 (1993), 8-13.
  • Young, Abigail A. “Accessus ad Alexandrum: the Prefatio to the Postilla in Iohannis Euangelium of Alexander of Hales (1186?-1245).” Mediaeval Studies 52 (1990), 1-23.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]


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