Waindio

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Wanawake wa kabila la Quechua katika wilaya ya Andahuaylillas, Peru, 2007.

Waindio au Wahindi wekundu ni watu wanaotokana moja kwa moja na waliokuwa wenyeji wa Amerika kabla ya bara hilo kufikiwa na Christopher Columbus kutoka Ulaya (1492).

Asili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ramani ya uenezi wa binadamu duniani[1]

Utafiti uliofanywa kwa muda mrefu na kwa njia mbalimbali umekadiria kwamba mababu wao walioenea katika Amerika yote wakitokea Asia kaskazini mashariki miaka 14,500 BK.

Inadhaniwa kwamba hao mababu waliishi muda mrefu na kuzaliana bila mawasiliano na binadamu wengine, labda katika eneo ambalo leo limefunikwa na maji kwenye mlangobahari wa Bering. Inakadiriwa DNA yao ilitokana na ile ya Waasia mashariki (2/3) na Waeurasia (1/3).

Baada ya kuingia bara hilo, ambalo ni la mwisho kukaliwa na watu (tukiacha Antaktiki), kwa karne chache walienea hadi kusini kabisa, kwenye Chile na Argentina ya leo. Katika kusambaa kwao, lugha na utamaduni vilizidi kutofautiana.

Hali ya sasa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Idadi yao inaweza kuwa milioni 60, wengi wao wakiishi Meksiko, Peru, Bolivia na Guatemala.

Hesabu hii haijumlishi machotara.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Göran Burenhult: Die ersten Menschen, Weltbild Verlag, 2000. ISBN 3-8289-0741-5

Vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Gaskins, S. (1999). "Children's daily lives in a Mayan village: A case study of culturally constructed roles and activities". Children's engagement in the world: Sociocultural perspectives: 25–61.
  • Nimmo, J. (2008). "Young children's access to real life: An examination of the growing boundaries between children in child care and adults in the community". Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood 9 (1): 3–13. doi:10.2304/ciec.2008.9.1.3
     .
  • Morelli, G.; Rogoff, B.; Angelillo, C. (2003). "Cultural variation in young children's access to work or involvement in specialised child-focused activities". International Journal of Behavioral Development 27 (3): 264–274. doi:10.1080/01650250244000335
     .
  • Woodhead, M. (1998). Children's perspectives on their working lives: A participatory study in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua.
  • Rogoff, B.; Morelli, G. A.; Chavajay, P. (2010). "Children's Integration in Communities and Segregation From People of Differing Ages". Perspectives on Psychological Science 5 (4): 431–440. doi:10.1177/1745691610375558
     .
  • Gaskins, S. (2006). 13 The Cultural Organization of Yucatec Mayan Children's Social Interactions. Peer relationships in cultural context, 283.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

     . ISSN 0003-1615
      . http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/the_americas/v062/62.3dean.html.
  • Kane, Katie (1999). "Nits Make Lice: Drogheda, Sand Creek, and the Poetics of Colonial Extermination". Cultural Critique (University of Minnesota Press) 42 (42): 81–103. doi:10.2307/1354592
     . ISSN 0882-4371
      .

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Hamilton, Charles (ed) (1950). Cry of the Thunderbird; the American Indian's own story. New York: Macmillan Company

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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