Mtindo wa Kiroma

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Sehemu ya kanisa kuu la Tournai, Ubelgiji, karne ya 12.
Kanisa kuu la Angoulême, Ufaransa.

Mtindo wa Kiroma (kwa Kiingereza Romanesque architecture) katika usanifu majengo ni mtindo sahili wa Karne za Kati ulioenea kote Ulaya.

Ulianza kati ya karne ya 6 na karne ya 10 (kadiri ya maoni tofauti), halafu katika karne ya 12 ulizaa mtindo wa Kigothi.

Unaunganisha sifa za majengo mengi ya Roma na ya Bizanti.


Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • V.I. Atroshenko and Judith Collins, The Origins of the Romanesque, Lund Humphries, London, 1985, ISBN 085331487X
  • Rolf Toman, Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Könemann, (1997), ISBN 3-89508-447-6
  • Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). Elsevier Science & Technology. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9.
  • Helen Gardner; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth, (2004) ISBN 0-15-505090-7.
  • George Holmes, editor, The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval Europe, Oxford University Press, (1992) ISBN 0-19-820073-0
  • René Huyghe, Larousse Encyclopedia of Byzantine and Medieval Art, Paul Hamlyn, (1958)
  • François Ischer, Building the Great Cathedrals. Harry N. Abrams, (1998). ISBN 0-8109-4017-5.
  • Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline of European Architecture. Pelican Books (1964)
  • John Beckwith, Early Medieval Art, Thames and Hudson, (1964)
  • Peter Kidson, The Medieval World, Paul Hamlyn, (1967)
  • T. Francis Bumpus,, The Cathedrals and Churches of Belgium, T. Werner Laurie. (1928)
  • Alec Clifton-Taylor, The Cathedrals of England, Thames and Hudson (1967)
  • John Harvey, English Cathedrals, Batsford (1961).
  • Trewin Copplestone, World Architecture, and Illustrated History, Paul Hamlyn, (1963)

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Simple English Wiktionary
Wikamusi ya Kiswahili ina maelezo na tafsiri ya maana ya neno:
St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, France: elevation of the east end (1080–1120).