Makanisa ya Kiselti

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Makanisa wa Kiselti (au Ukristo wa Kiselti) yalikuweko katika visiwa vya Britania kuanzia karne ya 3 hadi mwanzo wa Karne za kati. Jina linatokana na lugha ya Waselti, wakazi asili wa visiwa hivyo.[1]

Tofauti kati ya Ukristo wa huko na ule wa Ulaya bara zinapimwa na wataalamu kwa namna mbalimbali.[2] Siku hizi wengi wanaona hazikuwa kubwa sana.[3]Kati yake kuna siku iliyopangwa kuadhimisha Pasaka, nama ya kunyoa wamonaki, utaratibu wa kitubio na juhudi za kuhama nchi ya kuzaliwa "kwa ajili ya Kristo".[3][4][5][6][7][8]

Juhudi hizo za mwisho zilifanya hasa wamonaki kutoka visiwani waeneze desturi za Kiselti barani Ulaya; muhimu zaidi kati yake ni ile ya kuungama mara kwa mara kwa padri ili kutunza daima moyo safi.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Koch, p. 431.
  2. Koch, pp. 431–432.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Corning, p. 18.
  4. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland 400–1200 (London, 1995); T. M. Charles-Edwards, Early Christians Ireland (Cambridge, 2000); W. Davies, 'The Myth of the Celtic Church', in N. Edwards and A. Lane, The Early Church in Wales and the West (Oxbow Monograph 16, Oxford, 1992), pp. 12–21; Kathleen Hughes, 'The Celtic Church: is this a valid concept?’, in Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 1 (1981), pp. 1–20; Kathleen Hughes, The Church in Early English Society (London, 1966); W. Davies and P. Wormald, The Celtic Church (Audio Learning Tapes, 1980).
  5. Peter Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom, 2nd edition (Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 2003), pp. 16, 51, 129, 132.
  6. Patrick Wormald, 'Bede and the 'Church of the English'’, in The Times of Bede, ed. Stephen Baxter (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), p. 207.
  7. Richard Sharpe, "Some problems concerning the organization of the Church in early medieval Ireland", Peritia 3 (1984), pp. 230–270; Patrick Wormald, "Bede and the 'Church of the English'", in The Times of Bede, ed. Stephen Baxter (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), pp. 207–208, 220 n. 3
  8. Patrick Wormald, "Bede and the 'Church of the English'", in The Times of Bede, ed. Stephen Baxter (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), pp. 223–224 n. 1

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vyanzo vya awali[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Adomnan, Life of Columba, ed. A. O. and M. O. Anderson, 2nd edition (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1991)
  • Annales Cambriae, ed. Rev. John Williams ab Ithel (London : Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1860)
  • Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Angelorum, in Venerabilis Baedae Opera Historica, ed. C. Plummer (Oxford, 1896)
  • Cummian, De controversia paschali and De ratione conputandi, eds. Maura Walsh and Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1988), pp. 93–5.
  • Gildas, De Excidio Brittaniae, ed. J. A. Giles, Six Old English Chronicles (London, 1848)
  • Historia Brittonum, ed. J. A. Giles, Six Old English Chronicles (London, 1848)
  • Medieval Handbooks of Penance, eds. J. T. McNeill and H. M. Gamer (New York: Columba University Press, 1939)
  • Patrick (Saint), Confessio, ed. and trans. John Skinner (Image, 1998)
  • Baring-Gould, S. (Sabine), The Lives of the British Saints,(1907) scanned by Google (alphabetized)

Vyanzo vingine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Cahill, Thomas (1996). How the Irish Saved Civilization. Anchor Books. ISBN 0-385-41849-3. 
  • Corning, Caitlin (2006). The Celtic and Roman Traditions: Conflict and Consensus in the Early Medieval Church. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-7299-0. 
  • Mayr-Harting, Henry. The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England, 3rd edition (London: B. T. Batsford Ltd, 1991).