Frederick I Barbarossa

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Sanamu ya dhahabu ya Frederick I (1171).

Frederick I (Kijerumani: Friedrich; 112210 Juni 1190), maarufu kama Frederick Barbarossa kutokana na ndevu zake nyekundu,[1] alikuwa Kaizari ya Dola Takatifu la Kiroma kuanzia 1155 hadi kifo chake wakati wa vita vya msalaba.

Kabla ya hapo alikuwa mfalme wa Ujerumani kuanzia 1152 na mfalme wa Italia mwaka 1155.

Halafu alitiwa pia taji la mfalme wa Burgundy, huko Arles tarehe 30 Juni 1178.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Canduci, pg. 263

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya awali[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya baadaye[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Haverkamp, Alfred. Friedrich Barbarossa, 1992
  • Novobatzky, Peter and Ammon Shea. Depraved and Insulting English. Orlando: Harcourt, 2001
  • Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8
       
  • Comyn, Robert. History of the Western Empire, from its Restoration by Charlemagne to the Accession of Charles V, Vol. I. 1851
  • Munz, Peter. "Frederick Barbarossa: A Study in Medieval Politics". Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, 1969
  • Opll, Ferdinand. Friedrich Barbarossa, 1998
  • Reston, James. Warriors of God, 2001
  • Federico Rossi Di Marignano: "Federico Barbarossa e Beatrice di Borgogna. Re e regina d'Italia", Mondadori, 2009, ISBN 88-04-58676-1 ISBN 978-88-04-58676-0
  • Walford, Edward, John Charles Cox, and George Latimer Apperson. "Digit Folklore part II". The Antiquary: A Magazine Devoted to the Study of the Past 1885 Volume XI: January–June.
  • Kigezo:EB1911
  • Gianluca Raccagni, The Lombard League (1164–1225), Oxford University Press 2010.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Angalia pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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