Ezana

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'Ezana wa Axum (pia inatamkwa ‘Aezana au Aizan) alikuwa mfalme wa Ufalme wa Axumite (c.321s – c.360)iliyopo katika sehemu ambayo inajulikana siku hizi kama Tigray, ipo kaskazini mwa Ethiopia, Eritrea, Yemen, yeye mwenyewe ndiye alianzisha aina ya ufalme wa Saba na Salhen, Himyar na Dhu-Raydan."[1]. Miji ya zamani ambayo Ezana alimrithi baba yake Ella Amida (Ousanas) tangu alipokuwa mdogo na mama yake . Sofya akiwa kama msaidiza wake.

Imani[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Yeye ndiye alikuwa mfalme wa kwanza wa Axum kupenda dini ya Kikristu, Ukristo, na mmoja baada ya Zoskales kutajwa na wanahistoria maarufu, hali iliyopelekea S.C. Munro kusema kuwa, Ezana ndiye mfalme maarufu zaidi kuwahi kuongoza ufalme wa Axumite ."[2] He appointed his childhood tutor, the Syrian Christian Frumentius, head of the Ethiopian Church. A surviving letter from the Arian Roman Emperor Constantius II is addressed to 'Ezana and his brother Se'azana, and requests that Frumentius be sent to Alexandria to be examined for doctrinal errors; Munro-Hay assumes that 'Ezana either refused or ignored this request.[3]

Greek inscription of Ezana recording his defeat of various neighboring peoples.

Jeshi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ezana pia alianzisha kampeni mbalimbali za kijeshi, ambazo pia ameandika katika maandishi yake.Baadhi ya maandishi yake Ge'ez yamepatikana katika eneo la Meroe ambayo yalikuja kuelewa kuwa ni ushahidi wa kampeni za mbalimbali zilizofanyika katika karne ya nne, Inawezekana kampeni hizi zilifanya katika kipindi kati ya ‘Ezana’ au aliyekuja kumrithi Ousanas. Wakati wanahistoria wengine wanatabiri kuwa, pengine maandishi haya yanathibitisha kuwa ufalme wa Axum uliangusha ufalme wa Kush. Lakini wengine wanadhani kuwa, ushahidi huo wa kihistoria unaonesha kuanguka kwa nguvu za kiuchumi na kisiasa katika utawala wa Meroe ianakadiriwa kuwa kati ya miaka 300.[4]

Kumbukumbu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika baadhi ya fedha za sarafu nchini humo, zimepigwa chapa ya moto wake , katika lugha ya Kigiriki “TOYTOAPECHTHXWPA’’ Ikimaanisha kuwa, naomba hii iwaridhishe watu hawa. Munro-Hay anagusia swala hili na kusema kuwa maandishi haya yalikuwa ni kwa ajili ya kuwapa wanachi mwamko na kuwafanya wawe na mapendo na waaminifu katika taifa lao [5] A number of coins minted bearing his name were found in the late 1990s at archeological sites in India, indicating trade contacts in that country. [6] Lakini mabadiliko makubwa ni ya sarafu hiyo kutoka katika hali ya kipagani yaani, Isito na dini, hadi kuweka alama ya msalaba yenye kuonesha ishara ya Ukristu na pia picha ya minara yam mawe

Ezana anajulikana katika orodha ya wafalme japokuwa sarafu za nchini hiyo zimeandika jina lake. Kwa mujibu wa tamaduni mbalimbali za nchini humo, Wafalme kama vile 'Abreha na 'Asbeha waliongoza Ethiopia wakati dini ya kikristu ilipoingizwa, inawezakana ndio kwa ajili hii kuwa, majina haya waliitwa hawa wafalme kama vile Ezana na kaka yake. Na kuhisi kuwa pengine haya ndio majina yao ya ubatizo. .[7]

Ezana na kaka yake, Se'azana, wanachukuliwa kama wafalme nchini Ethiopia hususani na makanisa mbambali ya kilokole., na kukumbukwa katika tarehe moja ya mwezi wa kumi, [8]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. S. C. Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), p. 81. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6
  2. Munro-Hay, Aksum, p. 77
  3. Munro-Hay, Aksum, pp. 78ff
  4. Munro-Hay, Aksum, pp. 79, 224.
  5. Munro-Hay, Aksum, p. 192.
  6. Details in Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia (New York: Palgrave, 2000), p. 31 n.18.
  7. See "'Ezana" article on Dictionary of African Christian Biography (http://www.dacb.org) Web site at http://www.dacb.org/stories/ethiopia/_ezana.html
  8. Holweck, F. G., A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co. 1924

Masomo ya ziada[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Yuri M. Kobishchanov. Axum (Joseph W. Michels, editor; Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, translator). University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1979. ISBN 0-271-00531-9
  • Sergew Hable Sellassie. Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270 (Addis Ababa: United Printers, 1972).
  • African Zion, the Sacred Art of Ethiopia, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993).
  • Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity http://users.vnet.net/alight/aksum/mhak1.html