Calvin

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Calvin alivyochorwa na Hans Holbein Kijana.

John Calvin, kwa Kifaransa Jean Calvin au kizamani Jehan Cauvin (10 Julai 1509 - 27 Mei 1564) alikuwa mwanateolojia toka Ufaransa aliyeanzisha madhehebu maalumu ya Ukristo katika karne ya 16 akiunga mkono Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti yaliyoanzishwa na Martin Luther nchini Ujerumani, lakini kwa kutofautiana naye katika mafundisho mbalimbali.

Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kisha kusoma kwa maelekeo ya Renaissance na kuwa mwanasheria, alijitenga na Kanisa Katoliki mwaka 1530 hivi.

Kutokana na mapigano ya kidini yaliyozuka Ufaransa, alikimbilia Basel, Uswisi, alipochapa toleo la kwanza la kitabu chake maarufu zaidi, Institutiones Christianae Religionis mwaka 1536.

Mwaka huohuo William Farel alimualika Geneva, lakini halmashauri ya mji ilikataa kutekeleza mapendekezo yao ikawafukuza.

Hapo Martin Bucer alimuita Calvin huko Strasbourg, alipoongoza Waprotestanti waliokimbia Ufaransa, akiendelea kuhimiza matengenezo mjini Geneva, ambapo hatimaye alikaribishwa kurudi kama kiongozi wa dini.

Huko Calvin aliingiza miundo mipya ya uongozi na aina mpya za liturujia, akishinda upinzani wote.

Wakati huo alifanya halmashauri ya mji imuhukumu adhabu ya kifo Michael Servetus, Mhispania aliyetazamwa na wote kama mzushi.

Baada ya wakimbizi wengi kuhamia Geneva, uchaguzi mpya uliwezesha kufukuza toka mji huo waliompinga Calvin.

Miaka yake ya mwisho aliitumia kueneza matengenezo yake kote Ulaya, akiacha nyuma yake madhehebu ya Reformed, Congregationalists na Presbyterians, ambayo leo yana jumla ya waamini zaidi ya milioni 80, wengi wao wakiwa wameunganika katika "World Communion of Reformed Churches".

Calvin alitetea kwa ukali misimamo yake na kusababisha mabishano mengi.

Pamoja na Institutiones, aliandika vitabu vingi vya ufafanuzi wa Biblia, teolojia na maungamo ya imani, bila kuacha kuhubiri wiki nzima.

Calvin aliathiriwa na Agostino wa Hippo hata kukazia mafundisho yake kuhusu uteule kutokana na imani ya kwamba wokovu wa binadamu unamtegemea Mungu tu.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Baron, Salo (1972), "John Calvin and the Jews", in Feldman, Leon A., Ancient and Medieval Jewish History, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, OCLC 463285878
        (originally published 1965).
       
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  •          (2008), The Writings of John Calvin: An Introductory Guide, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 0-664-23230-2
       
  • Detmers, Achim (2006), "Calvin, the Jews, and Judaism", in Bell, Dean Phillip; Burnett, Stephen G., Jews, Judaism, and the Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Germany, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-14947-2
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  • Graham, W. Fred (1971), The Constructive Revolutionary: John Calvin and His Socio-Economic Impact, Richmond, Virginia: John Knox Press, ISBN 0-8042-0880-8
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  • Heron, Alasdair (2005), Lacoste, Jean-Yves, ed., "John Calvin", Encyclopedia of Christian Theology (New York: CRC Press) .
  • Hesselink, I. John (2004), "Calvin's theology", in McKim, Donald K., The Cambridge Companion to John Calvin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-01672-8
       
       
       
  • Lange van Ravenswaay, J. Marius J. (2009) [2008], "Calvin and the Jews", in Selderhuis, Herman J. (in Dutch), Calvijn Handboek, Translated by Kampen Kok, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., ISBN 978-0-8028-6230-3
       
  • Manetsch, Scott M. (2013), Calvin’s Company of Pastors: Pastoral Care and the Emerging Reformed Church, 1536–1609, Oxford Studies in Historical Theology, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • McDonnell, Kilian (1967), John Calvin, the Church, and the Eucharist, Princeton: Princeton University Press, OCLC 318418
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  • McNeil, John Thomas (1954), The History and Character of Calvinism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-500743-3
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  • Niesel, Wilhelm (1980), The Theology of Calvin, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, ISBN 0-8010-6694-8
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  • Parker, T. H. L. (1995), Calvin: An Introduction to His Thought, London: Geoffrey Chapman, ISBN 0-225-66575-1
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  •         (1975), John Calvin, Tring, Hertfordshire, England: Lion Publishing plc, ISBN 0-7459-1219-2
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  •         (2006), John Calvin: A Biography, Oxford: Lion Hudson plc, ISBN 978-0-7459-5228-4
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  • Pater, Calvin Augustus (1987), "Calvin, the Jews, and the Judaic Legacy", in Furcha, E. J., In Honor of John Calvin: Papers from the 1986 International Calvin Symposium, Montreal: McGill University Press, ISBN 978-0-7717-0171-9
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  • Potter, G. R.; Greengrass, M. (1983), John Calvin, London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., ISBN 0-7131-6381-X
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  •           (2009), "Calvin as Biblical Interpreter Among the Ancient Philosophers", Interpretation 63 (2): 142–153, doi:10.1177/002096430906300204
      

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Balserak, Jon (2014), John Calvin as Sixteenth-Century Prophet, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-198-70325-9
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Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]